1769/70 Map of New Zealand
Click here to
1833 - Flag Design
The Chiefs discuss the design of the Maori flag with Busby. Busby asks Rev
Williams and the Colonial Secretary Richard Bourke in New South Wales for
1834 - 21 Gun Salute
March 1834, at Waitangi, Captain Lambert of the British Man of War Ship `HMS
Alligator' provided a choice of 3 flags for the Confederation of United Tribes
of which one was chosen as the National Flag of New Zealand - Aotearoa.
The British, American and French witnessed the ceremony with the `HMS Alligator'
firing a 21 gun salute in recognition of the Sovereign Maori Nation according to
International protocol (see British Parliamentary Papers).
King William instructed the Vice Admiral of the East Indies to recognise the
flag of the Sovereign State of Aotearoa
1835 - Gazette Notice
The New South Wales Government acknowledged this occasion by Gazette Notice at
page 580. This acknowledgment also has his Majesty's Royal protection in
perpetuity (NSW Gazette Notice & Letters Patent)
The Declaration of Independence was drafted with the assistance of Busby, the
British Resident, and proclaimed according to International Protocol by thirty
three Chieftains of the Confederation, at Waitangi in The Bay of Islands
Declaration of Independence 1835
- We the Hereditary Chiefs and Heads of the Tribes of the
Northern parts of New Zealand, being assembled at Waitangi, in the Bay of
Islands, on this 28 day of October, 1835, declare the independence of our
country, which is hereby constituted and declared to be an Independent State,
under the designation of The United Tribes of New Zealand
- All sovereign power and authority within the territories of
the United Tribes of New Zealand is hereby declared to reside entirely and
exclusively in the Hereditary Chiefs and Heads of Tribes in their collective
capacity, who also declare that they will not permit any legislative authority
separate from themselves in their collective capacity to exist, nor any function
of government to be exercised within the said territories, unless by persons
appointed by them in Congress Assembled.
- The Hereditary Chiefs and Heads of Tribes agree to meet in
Congress at Waitangi in the Autumn of each year, for the purpose of framing laws
for the dispensation of Justice, the preservation of Peace and Good Order, and
the regulation of Trade, and they cordially invite the Southern Tribes to lay
aside their private animosities and to consult the Safety and Welfare of our
common country, by joining the Confederation of the United Tribes.
- They also agree to send a copy of this Declaration to His
Majesty, the King of England, to thank him for his acknowledgment of their flag,
and in return for his friendship and protection they have shown, and are
prepared to show, to such of his subjects as have settled in their country, or
resorted to its shores for the trade, they entreat that he will continue to be
the parents of their infant state, and that he will become its protector from
all attempts upon its independence.
Signatories of the Declaration
Ko to Paerata no Te Patu, ko Tareha no Ngati Rehia, ko Ururoa no to Aha Aw, ko
Kawiti no Ngati Hine, Ko Hare Hongi, ko Pumuka no to Raroa, Ko Hemi Kepa Tupe no
to Uri Putete, ko Te Kekeao no Ngati Matakiri, Ko Te Warepoaka no to Hikutu, ko
Te Kamara no Ngati Kawa, ko Titiro no Ngati Nanenane, ko Pomare no Ngati Manu,
ko Moka no Te Patu Heke, ko Wiwai no to Kapu Tai, ko to Warerahi, ko to Tao no
to Kai Mata, ko Rewa, ko Marupo no to Wanau Rara, ko Wai no Ngati Awake, ko to
Kopiri no to Uri Taniwha, ko to Reweti Autau Haere no Ngati Tau Tahi, Ko Wanau
no to Wanau Horo, ko to Awa, Ko to Ngere no to Uri Kapana, ko Wiremu Taunui no
to Wiu, ko Moetara no Ngati Korokoro, ko Tenana no Ngati Kuta, ko Hiamone no to
Uri-o-Ngonga, ko Pi no to Mahurehure, Ko Tamati Pukututu no Te Uri-o-te-Haw- ato,
ko Kaua no to Herepaka, Ko Eruera Pare to kai tuhituhi Ko Nene, ko Pana- kareo,
ko to Huhu, ko Kiwikiwi, Ko Tona, Ko to Tirarau.
Later signing were in 1836, ko Patuone, ko Mohi Tawai, ko Papahia, ko Parore. ko
Kaha, ko Mate. 1838, ko Hapuku and in 1839, ko Te Wherowhero Potatau.
Henry Williams, James Clendon and Gilbert Mair witnessed the Declaration. Busby
himself, as a public servant refrained from signing.
October 28 1835, the Confederation of Chiefs declared the northern parts of
Aotearoa Independent through the Declaration of Independence. They then extended
an invitation to the other tribes to join them. King William received and
acknowledged the Confederation's Declaration of Independence, including their
National Flag (Gazette Notice p, 580) King William IV acknowledged these rights
and agreed to become their protector of Maori Laws in perpetuity (Letters Patent
& British Parliamentary Papers)
1836 - Ratification
The British Government, through the House of Commons, ratified the Declaration
of Independence and acknowledged the Confederation title to the soil and their
Sovereignty as indisputable. The Confederation continued exercising their
authority and planned to implement a two level structure, to unite the tribes
through bloodlines at the Ariki level and secondly, to unite the tribal armies
in common defence policy.
Three War Canoes were constructed at Whakaki Lagoon, Wairoa
and carved at Turanganui to patrol the coast.
1839 - Tauiwi Form of Government
The British Government and the Marquis of Normandy instructed Captain William J.
Hobson, to establish amongst Tauiwi a settled form of government. Her Majesty
Queen Victoria in common with predecessor (King William) disclaimed for her and
her subject, every pretension to seize on New Zealand or to Govern Maori as part
of a Dominion of Great Britain.
1840 - Te Tiriti o Waitangi
The Confederation of Sovereign Chiefs of Aotearoa and the Queen of England,
enter into a covenant (contract of binding agreement) known as Te Tiriti o
Waitangi, at Waitangi, which outline the Terms and Conditions to establish a
settled form of Civil Government with a Governor (kawanatanga) for approx 2000
tauiwi (British subjects, amongst them are many persons of bad character,
escaped convicts and seamen, who deserted their ships and were unrestrained by
any law). This included, conditions relating to Maori full exclusive and
undisturbed possession of their resources and taonga (see Article 2 of Te Tiriti).
Tauiwi could not violate these conditions without making the contract null and
Te Tiriti o Waitangi gave the Queen the exclusive right to pre-emption (first
option to buy) over such lands as the Maori thereof may be disposed to alienate,
at such times as may be agreed between the Maori and persons appointed by the
Queen (see Article 2 of Te Tiriti).
Te Tiriti did not cede Sovereignty, it only appointed a governor (kawanatanga)
to act in a `consultative' manner with the Confederation of Sovereign Chiefs.
The Confederation flew their flag and continued to exercise their authority, the
Queen's representative Captain William Hobson (the kawanatanga) remained as a
consultative body in the issues of Maori.
Captain Hobson, Governor Robert Fitzroy and others (nga kawanatanga) violated Te
Tiriti o Waitangi and the Queens right to pre-emption, when the Governor set
about issuing waivers and certificates for land to raise finances for their
administration and well-being. This was done without consultation and the `Free
and Intelligent consent' of the Confederation and therefore was in breach of Te
Past and present Governments continue their illegal sales, legislation's and
activities without consent today. Again, they have broken the binding Terms and
Conditions of Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840.
The Maori Tiriti did not cede Maori Sovereignty to anyone, nor did it give the
New Zealand Colonial Government the right to interfere with Maori Common Law
Rights which are Constitutional Matters.
1852 - The Constitution Act 1852 (UK)
Section 71 acknowledge Maori rights to self government which is still current
today S. 71 says;
That Her Majesty acknowledges Maori rights to make laws,
customs and usages under the government of themselves, and that in exchange for
the acknowledgment of Maori Laws, customs and usages Her Majesty reserves the
right 'by letters patent' to challenge any Maori laws, customs and usages that
are repugnant to the general principles of humanity
The Sovereign Maori Nations of Aotearoa DO NOT require any
permission whatsoever from any Government Body or International organisation to
exercise full Sovereign Power and/or Authority (tinorangatiratanga).
21st February 1879 Letters Patent
Royal instructions to the Governor were issued by letters patent and gazetted in
New Zealand, which stated that no Bills or Laws shall be passed that were in
breach of the Tiriti o Waitangi
1986 - Attempt to Repeal Maori Right to
The NZ Labour Colonial Government through the Hon Geoffrey Palmer, passed a Bill
to usurp and repeal Maori right to govern themselves as acknowledged in s.71 of
the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852.
This Bill has not received Royal Assent by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and no
Letters Patent has been issued by the United Kingdom
1992 - Claims Settlement.
The NZ Colonial National Government passed a Bill to their Treaty of Waitangi
(Claims settlement) Act 1992 that has not received Royal Assent and no Letters
Patent has been issued by the United Kingdom
13th & 14th May 1994
A National hui of all hapu, including the Maori Congress was held.
A six criteria formulation was drafted and accepted, which included the
Declaration of Independence 1935.
THE CONFEDERATION OF UNITED TRIBES TODAY
14th June 1994 - Re-affirmation
The re-affirmation of the Council of Elders of the Confederation of United
Tribes was proclaimed internationally.
This proclamation was given formal recognition by seventeen Sovereign Nations,
the United Nations and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
19th & 20th August 1994
Maori Congress AGM hui at Taumaranui accepted the first re-affirmation
celebrations of the Declaration of Independence, be held at Waitangi on the 28th
24th & 26th September 1994 - Return of
the Confederation Flag to Waitangi
The National flag of the Maori Nation was officially returned by the Ngati
Whatua HapuTe Uri-o-Hau Hapu of Aotea, to Waitangi Marae and to the Congress of
the United Tribes of New Zealand.
Since the Resolution of the Hui-a-Iwi of Taumarere. Te Uri-o-Hau hapu of Ngati
Whatua , has been the kaitiaki (host) of the mana of the Confederation of the
United Tribes of New Zealand
24th & 24th September - National Flag
A Confederation of United Tribes flag re-dedication ceremony was held at the
last site of the Confederation of United Tribes last Parliament House at Aotea,
Shelly Beach on the Kaipara.
28th October 1994 - Reconstituted
The Confederation of United Tribes of New Zealand was formerly re-constituted on
28 October at an Independence Day Celebration at Waitangi with Ngapuhi-nui-tonu
hosting the day
Personalities in attendance were:
• The Governance was represented by Doctor Bruce Gregory - Elected Member of
• Ngati Porou was represented by Tamati Reedy
• Formally acknowledged by 17 nations
• The Pacific Communities were represented by a Delegation that included a Royal
Princess of the Tongan Monarchy Delegates form nga hapu o Te Iwi Maori
7th February 1995 - Interim National
The formation of an Interim National Secretariat and National Taumata, National
Structure, policies and actions were implemented
18th March 1995 - Trade meeting
The Iranian Embassy formally invites the Taumata to attend a trade delegation
9th November 1995 - Royal Commission of
A petition for a Royal Commission of Inquiry for Common Law breaches was
dispatched and served on Her Majesty at her Residence in New Market
1996 Support from CHOGHM
The Commonwealth Heads of Government invites the Taumata to discuss intellectual
property rights. Taumata members meet with several Presidents of CHOGHM to
discuss trade and diplomatic relations and receive formal recognition of the
Maori Sovereign Nation
Ten Nations of the CHOGHM group has given recognition and pledged support in the
1997 - Customary Fishing
The Confederation of United Tribes implement its customary and non customary
fishing, and commercial fishing practices 23rd July 1997, Spencer Samuels was
charged with obstruction and pending charges for breaching the New Zealand
Governments Quota Management and Fisheries Act.
Mr Samuels charges for obstruction were dismissed, and MAF's pending charges
were dropped during an exhaustive High Court process that prompted the Crown to
withdraw its charges.
1997 - The ISNA
By invitation from the Confederation, all Pacific Nations were invited to join
the Indigenous Sovereign Nations Friendship Treaty.
The aim of ISNA is to promote the national interests, trade and diplomatic
relations collectively, in the United Nations of its members.
The United Nations through its Human Civil and Political Rights of Indigenous
Peoples Lobby, decreed that the Maori Nation, through the Confederation
Membership of ISNA or Indigenous Sovereign Nations Assembly, is eligible for
direct Humanitarian Funding for areas of Education and Health Service The
criteria for such funding is still to be supplied but it is expected to be quite
December 1998 - Court Action
Confederation Customary fishing continues with John Hikuwai and the vessel James
At the time of seizure the James O'Brien was flying under the protection of the
Confederation of United Tribes National flag and Mr Hikuwai was convicted in the
As the District Court's jurisdiction to deal with Constitutional law is limited.
Mr Hikuwai sought to appeal the case and is now in the High Court
April 1999 - High Court Action.
An application was heard before Justice Anderson, in the High Court pertaining
to Mr Hikuwai and his constitutional rights under the Confederation of United
Tribes, through s.71 of the NZ Constitution Act 1852.
June 3rd the application was amended and is now being heard by Judge Goddard,
who has demanded that the Crown produce its authority to make laws for Maori..
Counsel for the Confederation of United Tribes, Honoria Gray and Eru Manukau
have requested that the Crown produce certified copies by Her Majesty, of Royal
Assent and Letters Patent issued by the United Kingdom.
The Crown was given 60 days to produce Letters Patent and Royal Assent from 3rd
of June 1999.
No certified Letters Patent and Royal Assent have been produced to date.
However, the counsel for the Confederation of United Tribes has received copies
of uncertified Letters Patent issued by the New Zealand Colonial Government.
These documents are irrelevant
A further evaluation conference is to be held on 29th July 1999.
10th May 1999 - Governor General
An invitation by the Governor General Sir Michael Hardy-Boyes to the
Confederation of United Tribes, to establish Official communications protocols
between the Maori Sovereign Nation and the British Sovereign.
Diplomatic Protocols have been sent to the Governor and Her Majesty Queen
The Confederation of United Tribes are awaiting their response.
Question of Validity
The Declaration was made in proper form and according to International protocol
and recognised accordingly
The Maori Confederated States achieves validity and legitimacy through
International Recognition by other Nations under International Law, not only
through the British Crown or Te Tiriti o Waitangi and its much abued Crown
guarantees of protection
As such all our interests can be protected by the Confederation of United Tribes
International support is growing daily for the Confederation. It is expected by
the year two thousand the Confederation will have in excess of 50 foreign
nations attesting to its validity
WHERE TO FROM HERE!!